These are my notes from the morning presentation of Dr. Phil Warrick on “The Art & Science of Teaching” on April 2, 2012, in Oklahoma City. This was a workshop hosted by Deer Creek Public Schools. MY THOUGHTS AND COMMENTS ARE IN ALL CAPS. “The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction” by Robert Marzano is a 2007 book providing specific teaching and learning strategies to improve student achievement which are supported by academic research. This post is an edited summary of my notes originally taken during the session and shared here.
The REAC3H Network is a network of schools organized by the Oklahoma State Department of Education officially:
To provide leadership to Oklahoma — through professional development, technical assistance, resources and collaboration — during transition to a new Teacher and Leader Effectiveness system, statewide reforms, and the Oklahoma C3 Standards, including full implementation of Common Core standards and assessments in 2014-15.
Deer Creek Public Schools is a “coordinating district” for REAC3H, and in that capacity has provided opportunities for other districts in their collaborative to participate in today’s workshop. Regardless of the TLE model selected by Oklahoma school districts (there are 3 available) every school district needs to focus on “what works” in classrooms. Educational research, including action research in Oklahoma classrooms, is the foundation of “The Art and Science of Teaching” and is relevant for all schools.
MY ASIDE: FOR MORE BACKGROUND AND INFORMATION ABOUT TLE MODELS IN OKLAHOMA, SEE THE YUKON SCHOOLS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT POST FROM MARCH 7, 2012, “Information about 3 TLE Models for Oklahoma (March 2012).” THE OKLAHOMA EDUCATION ASSOCIATION’S PAGE ON TLE MODEL OPTIONS IS ALSO EXCELLENT.
A little background about Dr. Warrick: He served as a principal and administrator for 12 years, was Nebraska state principal of the year in 1985, was most recently was principal in Round Rock, Texas, and implemented “The Art and Science of Teaching” in Round Rock ISD successfully. Phil makes the framework come to life for educators and shows ways to practically apply the framework.
Phil grew up in in Nebraska in a family of five boys. He was a teacher and coach for ten years at the middle and high school levels, and has been a school administrator for 14 years. That time includes service in small as well as large school districts in two states. He received his doctorate in 2005 from the University of Nebraska. From 2008 to 2011, Dr. Warrick was the principal of Round Rock High School (a 5A district, which is the largest classification in Texas).
MY COMMENT: HIS DISSERTATION TITLE WAS: “An educator’s perception of STARS from selected Nebraska principals.” IT IS FOR SALE COMMERCIALLY FROM PROQUEST FOR $37 FOR PEOPLE IN NORTH AMERICA NOT AFFILIATED WITH AN ACADEMIC INSTITUTION.
When Phil arrived at Round Rock, the superintendent told him point blank, “You have 3 years to fix this school.” This was a critical conversation. He chose to work with Marzano Research Lab “because the research was solid and we didn’t have time to waste.” The school was labeled “pre-academically unacceptable” when Phil started. It became a ‘lab school” for Bob Marzano, who was looking for a school where they could pilot their evaluation system. By the time Dr. Warrick left the school (to go work for Dr. Marzano) the school had moved up two steps in the Texas evaluation system to “Recognized.”
Remember why educators stay or leave our profession: Collegial relationships are the #1 factor in educator retention.
Our goals today are to explore research on teacher effectiveness and learn common language for instruction, using nine essential questions. We will discuss results of over 40 years of educational research about “what works.”
MY COMMENT: I REALLY LIKE THIS FOCUS ON ‘COMMON LANGUAGE FOR INSTRUCTION.” PREVIOUSLY I’VE USED THE PHRASE, “SHARED INSTRUCTIONAL VOCABULARY.” SEE MY 2 DAY WORKSHOP FOR PRINCIPALS AND SUPERINTENDENTS, “Technology Leadership: PLNs, Vision & PD,” WHERE I EMPHASIZED THIS SAME POINT. THIS IS A HUGE REASON CONVERSATIONS ABOUT EXPECTED TECHNOLOGY USES IN THE CLASSROOM NEED TO GO HAND-IN-HAND WITH TEACHER EVALUATION. FOR MANY TEACHERS LIKE STUDENTS, WHAT MATTERS IS WHAT IS MEASURED. IF ADMINISTRATORS AREN’T ‘TALKING INSTRUCTIONAL LANGUAGE” WHICH INCLUDES APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY USE, MANY TEACHERS WON’T EMBRACE THOSE BEHAVIORS.
Norms for learning are important. As a classroom teacher you should set these up front with your students. We’ll set them now. Our norms today include “phones on silent, misery optional, return from breaks on time, avoid sidebar conversations, remember this is a working session.”
I have a core belief: Great educators are first and forest learners who have a teachable spirit. These great educators are the lead learners at your school. They are constantly in search of new ways to improve their learning. Phil told a story of a teacher at his school who retired after 37 years in the profession. He exemplified this spirit of lifelong learning by saying in his final year, he was proud it was his best year ever! He was always learning, therefore he loved teaching and his students loved learning with him.
Success in learning can be contagious! Phil showed the following video of a student giving advice about learning to ride a bike: Kid Gives Speech After Learning To Ride A Bike
We all have this spirit of a learner inside us, whether we are learning to ride a bike or learning calculus.
MY THOUGHT: I’D LIKE TO SEE A VIDEO OF ANYONE WHO IS THAT EXCITED ABOUT LEARNING A NEW ABSTRACT CONCEPT IN CALCULUS! I THINK ONE OF THE KEY TAKEAWAYS FROM THIS VIDEO (IN THE CONTEXT OF EDUCATION AND SCHOOLS) IS THAT RIDING A BIKE IS PERFORMANCE BASED… LEARNING CALCULUS RARELY IS. THAT’S NOT TO SAY IT CAN’T BE… IT CAN, ESPECIALLY AS WE TAKE A MORE STEM-FOCUS IN SCHOOLS. IT’S IMPORTANT NOT TO LUMP ALL LEARNING GOALS AND TASKS IN THE SAME BARREL. THIS IS A REASON WE NEED TO EMPHASIZE STEM AND THE ENGINEERING ELEMENTS… WE NEED TO FIND WAYS TO MAKE MANY ABSTRACT LEARNING ACTIVITIES MORE CONCRETE AND PERFORMANCE BASED. PHIL’S PRESENTATION DEFINITELY ENCOURAGED THIS KIND OF FOCUS… THIS VIDEO REMINDED ME OF IT TOO.
Phil shared this famous quotation from Alvin Toffler:
The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.
At this point Phil referenced “the learning pyramid” research and used it as a basis to encourage teachers to “move your kids down the pyramid.”
MY COMMENT: MY WRITTEN OBSERVATIONS ABOUT “THE LEARNING PYRAMID” RESEARCH ON THE INITIAL DRAFT OF THIS POST LED TO TWO EXCELLENT PHONE CONVERSATIONS WITH PHIL IN THE PAST TWO DAYS. (I’M WRITING THIS UPDATE ON 4/4/2012.) I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO CONTINUING THESE CONVERSATIONS, AND AM VERY GLAD TO BE ABLE TO DISCUSS THIS PARTICULAR RESEARCH WHICH DESERVES MORE ANALYSIS. PHIL CITED DAVID SOUSA’S BOOK “HOW THE BRAIN LEARNS” AS THE SOURCE THE GRAPHIC HE SHARED. I’LL POST UPDATES ABOUT THIS SPECIFIC ISSUE AS THESE CONVERSATIONS CONTINUE, AND INCLUDE A CROSS-LINK FROM THIS POST ONCE THAT’S AVAILABLE.
If you don’t have quality rules and routines in the classroom, everything else is trivial. Today we’re going to think about key rules and procedures. This is a great to start using in your staff meetings if you are a principal. Use one of the regrouping strategies we’re using today. This will group and regroup students for interaction, which is good for engagement, participation and transfer.
Establish 3 procedures for learning in your classroom right away: An attention and refocus signal, a transition signal, and grouping / regrouping strategies. Many people won’t consider these pivotal, but they are without a doubt. Good coaches have been doing these things for years and still do. Just as these procedures are critical for engagement on the field or on the court, they are also critical for high engagement in the classroom.
Here is my attention and refocus signal: I move to the front and center of the room, announce time remaining in the activity, and count down (to zero from about ten) to signal we near the end of the activity. At “0” everybody is back in their seat and ready to continue. I’ve seen this work with kindergarten students and 12th grade AP Physics students. You can think of this as “a way to implement procedures which aid learning.” As a teacher you have to start here because it’s where it all begins.
Often when teachers don’t group and regroup students, they are afraid they won’t be able to get student attention back again. It’s critical to be able to do this. Teachers do it in different ways. Remember there is not a single “best way” to provide these signals, but the key is every teacher needs them and needs to use them effectively. I know a teacher who moved under the flag in her classroom to get student attention, because it is associated with “attention” during the pledge. Students in her room know it’s time to get quiet and refocus when their teacher stands under the flag.
For us today in our workshop, my transition signal will be when I say, “Go.”
Now let’s talk about “Grouping and Regrouping Strategies.” The first one is “Close partners.” This means talking with two or three people sitting near you but NOT at your table. Find them now, introduce yourselves, and then answer the question, “What informs your teaching philosophy most in the classroom today?”
Answers from our participants included experience, research, and colleagues. MY COMMENT: I DISCUSSED THE REVISED BLOOM’S TAXONOMY AND THE IMPORTANCE OF HAVING STUDENTS CREATE KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTS/ARTIFACTS IN THE NATURAL COURSE OF CLASSROOM LEARNING.
What are your expectations of students?
My favorite definition of ‘creative’ is “Looking at one thing and seeing another.”
MY COMMENT: I LIKE THAT DEFINITION, BUT MY FAVORITE IS “MAKING STUFF.” CREATIVITY CAN BE LIMITED TO NEW IDEAS, AND NEW IDEAS CERTAINLY CHANGE THE WORLD, BUT “CREATE” IS THE ROOT WORD OF “CREATIVE.” IF STUDENTS ARE NOT ALLOWED AND ENCOURAGED TO “MAKE STUFF” I DON’T THINK WE CAN BE SURE THEY’RE SUPPORTED CREATIVELY.
Getting students to stand up and share with an elbow partner is very good physiologically for blood flow and brain function. Generally in school we have kids sitting down much too long. We need to encourage students to move and interact, and grouping / regrouping strategies can help with this.
Another grouping strategy is “Across the Room Partners.” This means finding two or three people NOT sitting near to you in the room. Go find these people and discuss this question: “Are effective teachers made, not born?
What is the role of talent and experience? (We discussed this a bit as a group.)
“We take back our profession when we start to practice our profession.” Some states are passing laws about teacher evaluation now because sometimes new teachers may establish good relationships with their students in their first few years, but not do much to improve their own teaching skills. This does need to be addressed.
We all know there are “people who make laws about our jobs who cannot do our jobs.” In Nebraska I was the chair of the group that served as legislative liaisons to our state senators. One day I issued this challenge to one of our state senators: “Come out and do my job (as a principal) for a day.” He didn’t take me up on the challenge, and the next time we had a scheduled meeting he actually sent his aide.
MY COMMENT: THIS REMINDS ME OF THE WONDERFUL DIGITAL STORYTELLING AND EDUCATIONAL ADVOCACY PROGRAM, NEBRASKA LOVES PUBLIC SCHOOLS. THIS STATEWIDE INITIATIVE, FUNDED BY THE SHERWOOD FOUNDATION, IS WORKING TO CHANGE PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS (INCLUDING LEGISLATIVE PERCEPTIONS) ABOUT PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND PUBLIC SCHOOL TEACHERS IN NEBRASKA. I ABSOLUTELY LOVE AND SUPPORT THIS PROGRAM. SEE MY PAST POSTS, “Nebraska Loves Our Public Schools: Educational Advocacy We Need!” AND “Nebraska Science Teachers Model “Go Outside” Best Practices with Students” FOR MORE BACKGROUND. HERE IS THE PROJECT’S LATEST VIDEO LINK: “Norris Public Schools: Making Special Education Truly Special.”
“I believe outside of organized religion, we are in the one profession that has the potential to change the world.” We [Marzano Research Lab] are working with 300 schools in Australia now, where they are launching a national curriculum in 2014. Australians have decided they want to take back their profession.
Experience is a valuable teacher [in any field or profession, including education] but deliberate practice is essential. Remember, it takes at least 10 years of deliberate practice in any profession to reach an ‘expert’ level.
My dad always used to tell me, “When you know better, you do better.” This goes for us as educators too! As in many sports, talent plays an important role in giving you a head start in teaching. Practice [AND COACHING] is essential for continuous improvement, however.
When it comes to our attention spans, we can roughly estimate that age equals attention span. A seven year old has about a seven minute attention span, and this will top out at about twenty minutes. Remember “learners need a change in state” regularly. Grouping and regrouping routines are an easy and productive way to do this in the classroom.
MY COMMENT: I’M REMINDED OF ELDER TRAINING AT OUR CHURCH WHICH STARTED TWO WEEKS AGO. WE HAD AN HOUR AND A HALF OF STRAIGHT LECTURE WITHOUT A SINGLE OPPORTUNITY TO INTERACT OR DISCUSS UNTIL A SHORT Q&A TIME AT THE END. NOT GOOD. YET ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF WHY THE IDEAS DR. WARRICK IS SHARING HERE ARE SO NEEDED FOR TEACHING IN ALL CONTEXTS.
Why do you think I want you to get in groups of two or three? It’s because when you have about five people in your group, it’s too large. Groups of two or three keep the size just right so everyone has a voice. If you give people the option to get in a group of two or three, instead of just partner groups, it gives learners more control. Remember “exclusion is the number one way kids bully.”
MY COMMENT: I’M THINKING THAT CAN GO FOR MANY ADULTS TOO, UNFORTUNATELY.
Use more than one strategy for regrouping to change things up. The psychology of groups tells us there are two major role players in groups: “Hogs” and “Logs.” Hogs want to do all the talking, logs will let them. Remember students have different learning styles, and the ways we teach need to accommodate this. One of the best ways (if you’re a campus principal) to get these grouping and regrouping strategies into your classrooms is to start modeling them in staff meetings.
The Marzano Research Lab is working closely with both Common Core test consortiums and I have seen many of the test questions. Based on what kinds of questions have been shared to date, it’s safe to say “If schools stick with ‘sit and get’ instruction, Common Core assessments are going to hit us like a train.”
MY COMMENT: IT’S INTERESTING THAT WHEN I HEAR PRESENTERS DISCUSS “SAMPLE QUESTIONS” FROM THE COMMON CORE CONSORTIUMS LIKE PARCC, IT’S OFTEN IN A CONTEXT OF FEAR: YOU BETTER CHANGE OR ELSE… THIS WAS DEFINITELY NOT DR. WARRICK’S TONE OR THEME DURING THIS ENTIRE PD DAY, BUT IT DID COME TO MIND WHEN HE MENTIONED CCSS ASSESSMENTS. SEE MY POST, “Common Core Implementation Guidelines for Leaders: The Good & The Bad” FOR A DETAILED EXPLANATION ABOUT WHY WE NEED TO DIVORCE THE HIGH-STAKES ASSESSMENT ELEMENTS OF CCSS FROM BENEFICIAL, POSITIVE ELEMENTS.
What are the things we can control in schools? Many things are out of our control as educators, but we CAN control “the quality of teaching in our schools.” Some argue tho is the ONLY thing we can really control.
Dr. Warrick showed a good example video of a teacher establishing norms for grouping. She used clear signals and a visual of room layout and groups on her projector screen at the front of the room. She identified each student by name when breaking students into groups. This was in a Washington DC middle school focused on ‘quality instructional procedures.’
Next Dr Warrick cited some reading research which highlighted the power of improving teacher quality versus things at the school and district level. The comparative chart focused on the impact on student achievement. Improving teacher quality has a MUCH greater impact and overall a much larger potential impact than anything else, when it comes to student achivement.
Remember the “expert range” is the top 2% of any field.
Dr. Warrick referenced research and a quotation from Dr. Deborah Loewenberg Ball, Dean of Education at the University of Michigan, who stated “If a student is in one of the most effective classrooms, he/she will learn in 6 months what students in a ‘traditional’ classroom will learn in one year.”
Three critical interventions and commitments can make a huge difference in the academic performance of students in your school. A system of clear learning goals connected to educational outcomes is one key element.
Dr. Warrick offered to email participants a copy of his presentation slides as a PDF.
Remember these things about campus principals: They are the leaders of learning and must be constantly learning themselves. Principals must continually cultivate quality in instructional practices, assessment practices, and ultimately student achievement.
School districts tend to take 1 of 2 paths or roads: “random acts of improvement” (which yield little results) or “aligned acts of improvement” (integrated and results oriented). Where should a school begin? Start by develop a common language of teaching. Provide opportunities for focused feedback and practice.
Do you any teachers that still speak the language of Madeline Hunter? Do you have some teachers still speaking the vocabulary of “Classroom Instruction That Works?” (It came out in 2001.) Now we also have groups of teachers really good with technology and speaking that language. Your teachers need a shared instructional vocabulary if you are going to be effective as a school.
There are three basic “lesson segments.” They are routine, the content lesson, and elements which are “enacted on the spot.” “We use the term lesson segment because it defines a unit of analysis…”
First let’s address lesson segments that involve routine behaviors. This involves setting clear learning goals and objectives. It also involves providing feedback, tracking student progress, establishing classroom routines and procedures, and organizing the physical layout of the classroom for learning (materials, traffic patterns, and displays) in intentional ways. Lesson segments which are focused on practicing skills and deepening understanding should include cooperative learning activities based on a teacher-established protocol.
Cultivating successful relationships with students is absolutely key for educators. I use the world ‘cultivating’ explicitly because adults have duties and responsibilities to cultivate relationships with students. This is true for the toughest kids as well. How do you do this? Find out what your students are interested in. Work to use strategies to engage or re-engage students and recognize teachable moments.
“People who say you have to use all 41 strategies in the [Marano teacher Evaluation model] don’t understand educational research at all.” These elements are not made to be used at the same time: Some are made for new knowledge, some are for other contexts.
Research on guiding questions is very important and valuable.
Utilizing learning goals are how we implement the curriculum at the classroom level. They are “the bridge between standards and classroom tasks.” Teachers should make learning goals visible each day, and make them in kid-friendly language each day. These should not written in ‘teacher speak.’
MY COMMENT: THIS REALLY IS A TERRIFIC ‘NORM’ TO ESTABLISH IN ALL CLASSROOMS. I THINK THIS IS ABOUT MAKING EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES MORE INTENTIONAL. THIS IS MUCH MORE VALUABLE THAN SIMPLY ASKING TEACHERS TO WRITE DOWN LESSON PLANS.
The key to successfully implementing learning goals is how teachers help students understand the learning goals. Remember, communicating learning goals is more than writing them on the board.
Next Dr. Warrick showed a video example of students writing down their learning goal, after the teacher provided it for students.
MY COMMENT: THIS IS SIMILAR TO WHAT JOHN NAIL (OUR SCHOOL BOARD PRESIDENT IN YUKON PS) ENCOURAGED TEACHERS TO HAVE STUDENTS DO AT THE START OF EACH CLASS – ARTICULATE LEARNING GOALS! SEE MY POST “Changing the Pictures of the Classroom in Students’ Heads by John Nail” FOR MORE DETAILS.
Next we watched a good example of a high school teacher providing opportunities for students to discuss and write down their learning objectives. The teacher used ‘response sticks’ (which had student names on them – no one is ‘off the hook’) as well as “physical presence” moving around the room to increase engagement. The objectives all started with “I” statements. Yes this was a 4 minute lesson objective introduction, but it was worth every minute. Sometimes we falsely assume students understand the ‘learning verbs’ in lesson objectives. Don’t make assumptions about student knowledge when it comes to these words in the lesson objectives. In the video the teacher modeled providing specific feedback to students.
Remember students come with unique gaps in learning. To illustrate this with humor, Dr. Warrick showed a video clip from “The Sketch Show” on Fox in 2005: The Sketch Show – English Study Group
Remember “all learning is scaffolding from the bottom up.” In the same class you need multiple learning goals so students can climb up to where you want them to go. These learning goals must be challenging yet attainable, must have multiple levels of goals, and should identify learning progressions for students.
This is where “Proficiency Scales” come in. Proficiency scales are for me, the most critical piece of new learning as an instructional leader. They are something I believe in whole-heartedly.
The levels of the proficiency scales are:
0 = even with help, no understanding or skill demonstrated
1 = with help, a partial knowledge of some of the simpler and complex details and processes
2 = no major errors or omissions regarding the SIMPLER details and processes BUT major errors or omissions regarding more complex ideas and processes
3 = (I WASN’T ABLE TO WRITE THIS ONE DOWN, BUT BASICALLY IT MEANS STUDENT MEET BASIC EXPECTATIONS)
4 = (I ALSO MISSED WRITING THIS ONE DOWN, BUT IT MEANS STUDENTS ARE GOING TO EXCEED BASIC EXPECTATIONS. THIS CAN INCLUDE CREATIVELY DEMONSTRATING MASTERY IN A UNIQUE WAY.)
You (as administrators) have to give teachers permission to spend more time on their learning goals. Principals can begin by designing (and prioritizing) learning goals in all subject areas. Instead of a teacher stressing that “we just have 4 days to cover this” we define what the non-negotiatbles are. That is critical for teachers. Remember “Even with the Common Core you don’t have enough time” [as a teacher] to cover it all in depth. Bob Marzano told CCSS writers they still had too many standards, but they kept lots of them. Some of the CCSS are high impact and have influence on others, but others are less important.
Identifying essential learning is step 1. The process is to identify essentials, then identify supplementals, then then identify “nice to know” items. Be sure to not spend too much time on these latter items which are not assessed / tested.
MY THOUGHT: PARTS OF THE CURRICULUM WHERE SPECIFIC TEACHERS ARE MOST PASSIONATE CAN HAVE A BIG INFLUENCE ON STUDENTS, HOWEVER. I THINK WE NEED TO FIND WAYS TO EMPOWER TEACHERS TO SHARE MORE FROM THEIR PASSION AREAS IN THE CURRICULUM
These are the criteria teachers can and should use to determine “essential.” Endurance – Does this provide knowledge and skills of value beyond a single test date? Leverage: Is this valuable in multiple disciplines? Does this provide readiness for next level of learning? When teachers score these, we recommend giving 1 point in each category. Then ask teachers to identify their three, two and single point objectives. This can really help in identifying what is important / essential and what’s not.
An example from Larry Ainsworth in “Unwrapping the Standards” highlights these dynamics: He tells a story of a student leaving a college history class, who remembered the common attributes of all revolutions he’d studied in high school and used that information to answer questions on a test. This compared favorably with a classmate who claimed to not remember anything about revolutions from high school.
Remember: “Proficiency scales are how you actionize standards in parent and student language.”
Marzano Research Labs hired teachers to work for 8 different Saturdays, and those teachers created over 1500 scales for grades K-12. These are available in PDF form on our website. We had to do that because we has someone try to sell them. To download you have to sign up with your email address and other information. We want schools to use these, we don’t want publishers to steal them and publish them in their books for sale. We wrote the base scale for the Common Core and have shared these. When we work directly with school districts, we provide MS Word format proficiency scales instead of read-only PDFs.
MY COMMENT: THIS IS A GREAT POTENTIAL USE FOR CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSING AND SHARING. WHY SHOULD THE WEBSITE BE LIMITED TO READ-ONLY PDFs? IT WOULD BE GREAT TO SEE THE SITE EXPLICITLY USE CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSES AND TAKE A SHARING MODEL LIKE CCMIXTER
The starting point should be “multiple learning goals for each student in each class.”
What about special education? Remember two conditions: accommodations and modifications. Sometimes in education we have violated these, intentionally or not. Accommodations can be a regular scale if teacher properly meets accommodations. Modifications, on the other hand, require teachers to modify scales in conjunction with the IEP goals. This is the job of special education professionals, and is exactly where special education professionals can help inform our practice by collaborating with classroom teachers.
Hawaii is a state creating and sharing statewide scales. Alaska is also doing this well, but they are not a CCSS state.
CLOSING COMMENT: THIS CONCLUDES MY NOTES FROM OUR MORNING SESSION. THIS WAS A TERRIFIC SESSION AND I RESONATED WITH MANY OF THE POINTS DR. WARRICK MADE. MY NOTES FROM OUR AFTERNOON SESSION ARE ALSO AVAILABLE.
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On this day..
- Print a QR Code for an AudioBoo Recording - 2014
- The Art & Science of Teaching by Dr. Phil Warrick (part 2 of 2) - 2012
- Webcasting with the Seedlings: In the Sprankle Podcave! - 2010
- Schools using Twitter for parent and community communication - 2008
- Family member tribute digital stories - 2008
- links for 2008-04-02 - 2008
- Podcast143: The Changing Landscape of the Global Digital Divide: Opportunities and Challenges for Teacher Education (Paul Resta) - 2007
- OLPC and the IDC test (innovation, differentiation & collaboration) - 2007
- Ruckus, DRM and IP (intellectual property) - 2007
- The boss button - 2007